The Green Stars Project

Daily Footprint, #6 – Clothing (Sustainable Textiles, Part 1)

Time to get dressed! Clothing is a huge topic so I’ll just go into one aspect here – choice of textile. Hopefully I’ll go into the other main topics in future posts: the human impact of cut-and-sew factories and the environmental impact of dyeing and finishing. Since clothing is one of our major needs in life (besides food, water and shelter) it’s worth putting some thought into which textiles are more sustainable. This helps not just with future clothing purchases but other things too, like furniture and bedding.

Types of textile materials

We can cover most of the available textiles in the following categories:

  1. Plant-based natural fibers are composed of cellulose, the most abundant natural polymer on earth, and include cotton, flax and hemp. Flax and hemp are made from bast fibers from the stems of these plants. Natural bamboo textile can also be produced from bast fibers, but this isn’t widely practiced yet and most bamboo fabric is viscose (see #3, below).
  2. Animal-based natural fibers are composed of protein and include wool, cashmere, alpaca, mohair, and silk.
  3. Fibers manufactured by chemical processing of cellulose derived from plants. The two main products today are viscose made from bamboo and lyocell made from wood fiber. (A brand of lyocell known as Tencel is made from wood from sustainably-managed forests, mainly eucalyptus.)
  4. Completely synthetic fibers, made from chemicals from the oil and gas industry include polyester, nylon, acrylic, spandex, and PVC.
  5. Newer options that are not yet widely available in clothing include polylactic acid (PLA, made by microbial fermentation of starch or sugar) and fibers made from plant protein.

There are many factors to consider when comparing these textiles, and it can seem like an overwhelming task, but it helps to break it down by looking at one aspect at a time and then make your choice at the end. Kate Fletcher (London College of Fashion) is an authority on sustainable clothing, and I found that her books were a great place to begin researching this topic. So let’s get started by looking at the social and environmental impact of different textiles.

Textiles: Land and agricultural inputs

Water and energy inputs for textiles

The chart below, compiled from a well-regarded UK report from 2009, estimates the water and energy needed to make 1 kilogram of each raw (undyed) textile, including both production and processing of raw material. As with any of these impact assessments be aware that the numbers will vary according to growing region, agricultural practices and processing method.

Estimated water (in liters) and energy (in megajoules) required to make 1 kilogram of various raw textiles. (Source: Defra, UK, 2009)

Of the synthetic fibers, polyester (currently representing around 55% of the textile market) has quite low energy and water impacts but is non-renewable. Of the natural fibers, wool, linen and hemp are all good options so far. But there are a few other factors to consider. In the next post, I’ll conclude on textiles by looking at fiber processing and consider whether one of the most popular new textiles – viscose from bamboo – is a sustainable choice. I’ll also take a look at impact of textiles during use (and look into some key new research that looks into what happens when we wash synthetic fibers) and at the end-of-life (recycling and disposal).

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